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Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy buy super avana 160 mg, Sixth Edition Body Companies super avana 160 mg without a prescription, 2001 646 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body Accessory salivary gland Tongue Accessory salivary gland Lingual frenulum Parotid gland Opening of submandibular duct Sublingual ducts Parotid duct Masseter muscle Sublingual gland Submandibular Submandibular gland duct Mandible (cut) FIGURE 18 order super avana 160 mg with visa. Mucous cells Intralobular parotid duct Lumen of Seromucous submandibular acini intralobular duct Serous cells (a) (b) Mucous cells Serous cells Intralobular (c) sublingual duct FIGURE 18 buy super avana 160 mg without prescription. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 18 Digestive System 647 TABLE 18. The right side has been cut away to illustrate the interior structures in the pharynx. The middle constrictor three regions: the nasopharynx, posterior to the nasal cavity; the muscle arises from the hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament and oropharynx, posterior to the oral cavity; and the laryngopharynx, encircles the middle portion of the pharynx. The superior constrictor mus- preventing air from entering the esophagus. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 648 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body The motor and most of the sensory innervation to the Adventitia pharynx is via the pharyngeal plexus, situated chiefly on the middle constrictor muscle. It is formed by the pharyngeal Tunica branches of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, together with muscularis a deep sympathetic branch from the superior cervical ganglion. Submucosa The pharynx is served principally by ascending pharyngeal Mucosa arteries, which branch from the external carotid arteries. The pharynx is also served by small branches from the inferior thyroid Lumen arteries, which arise from the thyrocervical trunk. Describe the location of the parotid, submandibular, and sub- The lower esophageal (gastroesophageal) sphincter is a lingual ducts and state where they empty into the oral cavity. After food or fluid pass into the stomach, this sphincter constricts to prevent the stomach con- tents from regurgitating into the esophagus. There is a normal ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH tendency for this to occur because the thoracic pressure is lower than the abdominal pressure as a result of the air-filled lungs. A bolus of food is passed from the esophagus to the stomach, where it is churned and mixed with gastric secretions. The chyme The lower esophageal sphincter is not a well-defined sphinc- thus produced is sent past the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to ter muscle comparable to others located elsewhere along the GI tract, and it does at times permit the acidic contents of the stom- the duodenum. This can create a burning sensation commonly called heartburn, although the heart is not involved. Certain Objective 10 Describe the location, gross structure, and mammals, such as rodents, have a true lower esophageal sphincter functions of the stomach. Objective 11 Describe the histological structure of the esophagus and stomach. List the cell types in the gastric mucosa, along with their secretory products. For descriptive purposes, deglutition The esophagus is that portion of the GI tract that connects the is divided into three stages. It is a collapsi- The first deglutitory stage is voluntary and follows mastica- ble tubular organ, approximately 25 cm (10 in. During this stage, the mouth is closed at the larynx and lying posterior to the trachea. A bolus is formed as The esophagus is located within the mediastinum of the the tongue is elevated against the transverse palatine folds thorax and passes through the diaphragm just above the opening (palatal rugae) of the hard palate (see fig. The upper third of the esophagus con- and are elicited by stimulation of sensory receptors located at the tains skeletal muscle; the middle third, a combination of skeletal opening of the oropharynx. Pressure of the tongue against the and smooth muscle; and the terminal portion, smooth muscle only. The soft palate and pendulant palatine uvula are elevated to esophagus: Gk. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 18 Digestive System 649 Esophagus Esophagus Fundus Cardia Peristaltic contraction of muscularis layer of esophagus Lesser Greater curvature curvature Swallowed bolus entering stomach Duodenum Pylorus Body Stomach (a) FIGURE 18. Elevation of the larynx against the epiglottis seals the glottis so that food or fluid is less likely to enter the trachea. Sequential contraction of the constrictor mus- cles of the pharynx moves the bolus through the pharynx to the esophagus. The third stage, the entry and passage of food through the esophagus, is also involuntary.

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Female sex hormones when dissolved in water buy super avana 160mg overnight delivery, forming a solution capable of conduct- promote the retention of fats generic super avana 160mg without prescription, which are an important food re- ing electricity super avana 160mg generic. An electrolyte is classified according to the ions it source for nursing a child discount super avana 160 mg without a prescription. The three classes of electrolytes than lipids, there is a disparity between the percent of body fluids are acids, bases, and salts, all of which are important for normal between males and females. The functions of ions include the control of water movement through cells and the maintenance of normal acid-base (pH) balance. Ions are also essential for nerve and Water muscle function, and some ions serve as cofactors that are needed for optimal activity of enzymes. Symptoms of electrolyte Water is by far the most abundant compound found within cells imbalances range from muscle cramps and brittle bones to coma and in the extracellular environment. The three kinds of electrolytes are summa- within the body as a homogeneous mixture of two or more com- rized in table 3. In this condition, the water is the sol- vent, or the liquid portion of the solution, and the solutes are substances dissolved in the solution. Water is an almost universal Proteins solvent, meaning that almost all chemical compounds dissolve in it. In addition, it is also used to transport many solutes through Proteins are nitrogen-containing organic compounds composed the cell membrane of a cell or from one part of the cell to an- of amino acid subunits. Water is also important in maintaining a constant cellular that contains an amino group (—NH2) and a carboxyl group temperature, and thus a constant body temperature, because it (—COOH). There are 20 different types of amino acids that can absorbs and releases heat slowly. Another function of water protein to be constructed to function in very specific ways. They may exist by themselves or be conjugated (joined) with other compounds; for example, with nucleic acids (RNA or Dehydration is a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid in- DNA) to form nucleoproteins, with carbohydrates to form glyco- take, with a resultant decrease in the volume of intracellular and extracellular fluids. Rapid dehydration through vomiting, diar- proteins, or with lipids to form lipoproteins. Infants are especially vulnerable because body as structural or functional. They can die from dehydration resulting significantly to the structure of different tissues. Cytology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 52 Unit 3 Microscopic Structure of the Body TABLE 3. Functional proteins assume a more active role in the Lipids, like carbohydrates, are composed of carbon, hydro- body, exerting some form of control of metabolism. Lipids, however, contain a smaller proportion clude enzymes and antibodies. Cellular growth, repair, and division depend stances within cells are summarized in table 3. Proteins, under certain conditions, may even be metabolized to supply cellular energy. List the four most abundant elements in the body and state Carbohydrates their relative percentages of body weight. What are the two kinds of Carbohydrates are organic compounds that contain carbon, hy- compounds that exist in the body? On what basis are they drogen, and oxygen, with a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. List some of the functions of water relative to cells and de- disaccharides, or double sugars, and polysaccharides, or long- fine solvent and solute. Carbohydrates are the body’s most readily avail- able energy source and also may be used as a fuel reserve.

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As its name implies generic 160 mg super avana with mastercard, skeletal muscle is usually as- movement of fluids through the visceral organs and the cir- sociated with bones of the skeleton safe 160 mg super avana. Such regulation is the task of smooth mus- large and forceful movements cheap 160 mg super avana with visa, such as those involved in cle order super avana 160 mg without prescription. Smooth muscle also has many individual specializa- walking, running, and lifting heavy objects, as well as for tions that suit it well to particular tasks. Some smooth small and delicate movements that position the eyeballs or muscle, such as that in sphincters, circular bands of muscle allow the manipulation of tiny objects. Some skeletal mus- that can stop flow in tubular organs, can remain contracted cle is specialized for the long-term maintenance of tension; for long periods while using its metabolic energy econom- CHAPTER 8 Contractile Properties of Muscle Cells 139 Whole muscle contractions are involuntary; the heartbeat arises from 1x within the cardiac muscle and is not initiated by the nerv- ous system. The nervous system, however, does participate in regulating the rate and strength of heart muscle contrac- tions. Chapter 10 considers the special properties of car- Fasciculus diac muscle. Skeletal muscle, with its large and powerful contractions; smooth muscle, with its slow and economical contractions; and cardiac muscle, with its unceasing rhythm of contraction—all represent Myofibril specialized adaptations of a basic cellular and biochemical 10,000x system. An understanding of both the common features and the diversity of different muscles is important, and it is use- ful to emphasize particular types of muscle when investi- Sarcomeres gating a general aspect of muscle function. Skeletal muscle 50,000x is often used as the “typical” muscle for purposes of discus- sion, and this convention is followed in this chapter where appropriate, with an effort to point out those features rela- tive to muscle in general. Important adaptations of the gen- eral features found in specific muscle types are considered Myofilaments in Chapters 9 and 10. The approximate amount of ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MUSCLE magnification required to visualize each level is shown above each view. In biology, as in architecture, it can be said that form fol- lows function. The muscle of the uterus, on the other hand, con- microscopy, x-ray and light diffraction, and other modern tracts and relaxes rapidly and powerfully during birth but is visualization techniques have shown the complex and normally not very active during most of the rest of a highly ordered internal structure of skeletal muscle. The economical use of energy is one of the mechanical experiments have revealed how this structure most important general features of the physiology of determines the ways muscle functions. Al- Muscle Structure Provides a Key to though contraction may occur in response to a nerve stim- Understanding the Mechanism of Contraction ulus, many smooth muscles are also controlled by circulat- ing hormones or contracted under the influence of local Skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue (Fig. A hormonal or metabolic influences quite independent of the whole skeletal muscle is composed of numerous muscle nervous system. Some indirect voluntary control of smooth cells, also called muscle fibers. A cell can be up to 100 m muscle may be possible through mental processes such as in diameter and many centimeters long, especially in larger biofeedback, but this ability is rare and is not an important muscles. The fibers are multinucleate, and the nuclei oc- aspect of smooth muscle function. Skeletal While one of the terms describing smooth muscle—vis- muscle has an abundant supply of mitochondria, which are ceral—implies its location in internal organs, much smooth vital for supplying chemical energy in the form of ATP to muscle is located elsewhere. The mitochondria lie close to the diameter of the pupil of the eye and accommodate the eye contractile elements in the cells. Mitochondria are espe- for near vision, cause body hair to become erect (pilomotor cially plentiful in skeletal muscle fibers specialized for rapid muscles), and control the diameter of blood vessels are all and powerful contractions. Each muscle fiber is further divided lengthwise into sev- eral hundred to several thousand parallel myofibrils. Most prominent of these is a dark band 140 PART III MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY Sarcolemma Mitochondrion One sarcomere Z line H zone A band Collagen fibrils I band T- tubule Sarcoplasmic reticulum FIGURE 8. It is divided at its center by a narrow, entwined about each other (Fig. In many skeletal posed of repeating subunits (monomers) of the globular muscles, a prominent M line is found at the center of the H protein G-actin (molecular weight, 41,700). In the groove formed down ture called a Z line (sometimes termed a Z disk to emphasize the length of the helix, there is an end-to-end series of fi- its three-dimensional nature). The filaments of the I band brous protein molecules (molecular weight, 50,000) called attach to the Z line and extend in both directions into the tropomyosin.

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