By R. Kayor. University of South Carolina.
Disagreements regarding inclusion of particular articles buy generic top avana 80 mg on line, which occurred in 12% top avana 80mg fast delivery, were settled by consensus generic 80mg top avana with mastercard. Because most studies had several potential biases cheap top avana 80mg with mastercard, our estimates of sen- sitivity and speciﬁcity must be considered imprecise. The most common biases were failure to apply a single reference test to all cases; test review Chapter 16 Imaging of Adults with Low Back Pain in the Primary Care Setting 299 bias (study test was reviewed with knowledge of the ﬁnal diagnosis); diag- nosis review bias (determination of ﬁnal diagnosis was affected by the study test); and spectrum bias (only severe cases of disease were included). Summary of Evidence: Radiculopathy is a common and well-accepted indi- cation for imaging; however, it is not an urgent indication, and with 4 to 8 weeks of conservative care, most patients improve. Urgent MR and con- sultation are needed if the patient has signs or symptoms of possible cauda equina syndrome (bilateral radiculopathy, saddle anesthesia, or urinary retention). Current literature suggests that MR is slightly more sensitive than CT in its ability to detect a herniated disk. Plain radiography has no role in diagnosing herniated disks, though it does, like the other modali- ties, show degenerative changes that are sometimes associated with herniated disks. Plain Radiography Because radiographs cannot directly visualize disks or nerve roots, their usefulness is limited. Plain ﬁlm signs of disk degeneration include disk space narrowing, osteophytes, and end-plate sclerosis. Indirect signs of possible nerve root compromise include facet degeneration as manifested by sclerosis and hypertrophy. In their recent prospective study examining patients with chronic LBP, Peterson and colleagues (19) considered whether a relationship existed between radiographic lumbar spine degenerative changes and disability or pain severity. They found no link between the severity of lumbar facet degeneration and self-reported pain or disability levels. While they did ﬁnd a weak link between the number of degenerative disk levels and the severity of degenerative changes at these levels with pain in the week immediately preceding the exam, they found no correlation to pain or dis- ability over the patients’ entire pain episode (which in some cases had lasted greater than 5 years) (moderate evidence). Furthermore, in greater than a quarter of the patients, all of whom were considered chronic LBP sufferers, no degenerative changes were evident on their radiographs. Even in those patients with degenerative ﬁndings, the severity of degen- eration was rated as mild in approximately 50%. However, they found a highly signiﬁcant correlation between a decrease in disk height over the intervening 12 to 13 years and the development of LBP (P =. Computed Tomography In an often-cited study by Thornbury and colleagues (21), CT had a sensi- tivity of 88% to 94% for herniated disks and a speciﬁcity of 57% to 64%, 300 M. Axial computed tomography (CT) image demonstrates a relatively hyperdense focal disk herniation (arrows) outlined by lower density cerebrospinal ﬂuid (CSF) within the spinal canal. Not taken into account in these studies is that herniated disks are commonly present in asympto- matic persons. While likely representing real anatomic abnormalities, these ﬁndings are irrelevant for clinical decision making, and thus reduce test speciﬁcity (Table 16. Finally, while these studies suggest CT is compa- rable to MR for diagnosing disk disease, an important drawback of CT compared with MR is that with only axial image acquisition, it is more dif- ﬁcult to subcategorize disk herniations into protrusions vs. However, multidetector CTs, with thin-section acquisition allows high-quality sagittal reformations to potentially over- come this limitation. However, because surrounding fat provides natural con- trast, CT, as opposed to plain radiography, can accurately depict the for- aminal and extraforaminal nerve roots, directly visualizing nerve root displacement or compression. But CT is less effective in evaluating the intrathecal nerve roots (limited evidence) (23). Magnetic Resonance Magnetic resonance has good sensitivity and variable speciﬁcity for disk herniations. Although this study avoided test review bias, diagnosis Chapter 16 Imaging of Adults with Low Back Pain in the Primary Care Setting 301 Table 16. Studies of lumbar spine imaging in asymptomatic adults Prevalence of anatomic conditions Modality Age group Herniated Bulging Degenerated Stenosis Anular (reference) description disk disk disk tear Plain x- 14–25 years, high 20% rays (108) performance athletes n = 143 Plain x-rays Army recruits, 18 years 4% (vs.
He reproduced this experiment with other animals purchase 80mg top avana free shipping, and developed the theoretical basis of iridology cheap 80mg top avana amex. According to his theory generic top avana 80 mg with mastercard, every organ in the body has a corresponding area in the iris buy discount top avana 80mg on-line, and the iris is like a map giving warning signs of various physical, mental, and spiritual problems. For Peczely and his followers, the eye is divided into zones that correspond to the various parts of the body. There is an iris soma- totopy, or an organic map, where each organ is reflected in one particu- lar location. The first, circular 98 Everything is in Everything — and Vice Versa somatotopy, is the study of the six concentric reflective zones located around the pupil. The second, complementary, part makes it possible to locate the various regions that reflect specific systems and organs; it is the study of organic topography. Iridologists thus believe it is possible to examine the iris and make a genuine dynamic evaluation and determine the level of the patient’s energy resources, by studying the structure of the iris stroma (the ma- trix of the iris), which is supposedly the reflection of one’s overall min- eral reserve. This matrix can be fine (that is best) or normal, loose, vacuolar or lacunar (such bubbles or gaps are "evidence" of the utmost devitalization). It can be normal, irritated, rounded or flattened — a sign of weakness, depression, general fatigue. Next comes the sympathetic nervous system, which accelerates the vegeta- tive functions of the body. The study of the parasympathetic nervous system is based on the dimension of the pupil, its off-centering (if any), a possible flatness that would indicate the reflective mark of the defec- tive organ, or ovalization. According to iridologists, analyzing the iris enables us to define our physical constitution and our fundamental heredity. The fibrillary lymphatic constitution, which includes blue eyes and all the variations. The pigmentary hematogenous constitution, which is condu- cive to circulatory problems, to obesity and diabetes, to liver and kid- ney trouble, and nervous spasms of the digestive system. Like the homeopath, the iridologist studies the morbid diatheses (congenital predispositions to certain diseases). This encompasses a whole range of problems that successively or simultaneously might be- fall the same subject, problems that differ as to where they strike and what symptoms they produce, but supposedly are identical in nature. The diathesis implies an overall unity of the disease and its causes, in spite of its various somatic manifestations. The patient is often optimistic, enthusiastic, and passionate, but may evolve toward asthenia; 2. The subject is pessimistic, careful, sparing, is more prone to reflection than to action, with infec- tious tendency; 3. The patient is prone to nervous hy- pertension, anxiety, aerophagia, and aerocolics; 4. This is the ideal breeding ground for the major diseases of our civilization: tuberculosis, nervous disorders, mul- tiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, suicide. Iridology thus should make it possible to establish a complete panorama of the individual’s vital potential, his heredity, morbid pre- 2 dispositions, imbalances and deficiencies. However, a simple examination of iridology theories shows that this is, in fact, a diagnostic technique worthy of Molière’s Diafoirus. That does not prevent iridology from claiming to be a natural out- growth of classical medicine and from claiming that its origins date back to "before 1000 BC"; and that it is "in agreement with genetics and embryology". In that remote era, man contemplated the sky, he observed nature and the various relations that exist between beings, things, and events. These observations led him to note that there is a correspon- dence between the human body, divided into twelve parts, and the twelve signs of the zodiac; thus the laws of the earth and the heavens were interpenetrating, and the man of remote times looked into the eyes to assess the state of someone’s health. But when it came to objective criticism, iridology has had to adapt: Today it proclaims that these iridal messages do not always show up. They precede the disease, but not always; they are expressed only at certain ages of life and are not permanent. Predisposition is not the obligatory sign of a disease; iridal signs persist after recovery, and 4 there are diseases that are not matched by iridal signs. These sentences, drawn from one of the bibles of iridology, amount to a proclamation that the diagnosis of a disease does not mean that the disease exists; that the existence of the disease does not neces- sarily involve the presence of signs in the iris; and moreover that disease is not synonymous with signs. W hat are we to think, then, of a diagnostic method that is both inconsistent and liable to induce both negative and positive false read- ings?
This should help you establish the standing of the speakers 80 mg top avana mastercard, how long they have worked in this particular field buy top avana 80 mg otc, areas of controversy top avana 80mg visa, and recent advances generic 80 mg top avana free shipping. Two months before the meeting By now the meeting abstracts will be printed and the organisers may well have sent you, as chairman, copies of the abstracts of the speakers in your session. If not, request them, together with mail, telephone and e-mail contacts for the speakers. Send contact details and copies of abstracts to all speakers and encourage them to make contact with each other, even to exchange slides (one advantage of PowerPoint is the ability to send slides around the world as e-mail attachments – some people argue it’s the only advantage). The purpose of all this electronic interchange is to ensure a coherent programme and prevent each speaker giving essentially the same introduction. With more and more speakers using computer-generated slides, it is important to find out from the organisers: • what formats are being supported (PC, Mac)? It is worth encouraging the speakers to bring their laptops, complete with software packages and presentations; if things do go wrong, they can always do another down-load of the images. At this stage you need to ensure that all participants are absolutely clear about the venue and date of the symposium and, 72 HOW TO CHAIR A SESSION above all, the duration of their contribution (for example, 25 minutes allowed to speak and 10 minutes for questions). You also need to establish any special requirements such as dual projection or video and to relay this information to the meeting secretariat. If circumstances allow, I try to organise a social event for the speakers on the day before the session. This may be just meeting for coffee in the conference centre or going out for a meal. This is particularly valued by junior speakers who can be overawed by speaking on the same programme as "superstars". The local organisers will usually suggest appropriate venues and may even make bookings. One to two days before the session Venue-related Make an effort to attend other sessions in the same venue. It is important that you, as chairman, are clear about the technical aspects of the arrangements and are able to inform the speakers authoritatively. They have to, because there is nothing more disastrous for a meeting than major foul-ups with slides. Some might regard the above as unnecessary, over-fussy, and not the responsibility of the chairman. However, it is clear that if you are able to identify potential problems in advance you have a chance of fixing them; if you find out on the day, you have no chance. Speaker-related One of the greatest anxieties of chairing a meeting, particularly if you are also an organiser, is: will the speakers actually show up? Checking with the meeting secretariat that the speakers have registered (and therefore arrived) can help to allay these fears. At the same time, you can obtain details of their local accommodation to confirm the time and venue of any social function and of the meeting. Remind speakers to arrive 15 minutes before the session is due to start for a briefing. Check that they are clearly labelled, have been checked for correct orientation, and do not jam in the projector. This should include: introductions for any participants who have not previously met; making technical arrangements for slides, graphics, sound, and lights; reiterating the timing and advising speakers on how you will indicate when they have five minutes left, and when their time is up (visual cues are often the best); having a reassuring word with the junior and less experienced speakers; and attending to bodily functions – you may be in the room for two hours. An over-run of one or two minutes into a five-minute discussion session or three minutes into a ten-minute discussion session is the maximum that should be allowed. If speakers ignore your visual cues, you must interrupt, politely but firmly, requesting the speakers to conclude their presentations. They are effectively saying that what I have to say is more important than what the other speakers have to say. At the end of each presentation, thank the speaker and request questions or comments. Identify those wishing to ask questions and request that they identify themselves and their affiliation.
Tetanus top avana 80mg on line, although rare cheap top avana 80 mg online, is a serious disease often tinue screening purchase 80mg top avana fast delivery, suggesting instead that continued screen- resulting in death generic top avana 80 mg mastercard. The most frequently studied form of screening, and 80% effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal fecal occult blood testing, has been shown to signiﬁcantly disease, but not pneumococcal pneumonia, in older adults reduce the rate of death from colorectal cancer. Although its efﬁcacy sensitivity of sigmoidoscopy, although recent studies in high-risk groups, particularly immunocompromised suggest that the combination may miss as many as 50% patients,26,27 is questionable, the U. Double-contrast Task Force and the CDC’s Advisory Committee on barium enemas are less useful in older adults, as uninter- Immunization Practices recommend its use in this popu- pretable results occur because many patients cannot lation because of the low risk of harm. The vaccine can move as required while on the radiography table38,39 and be administered at any time during the year, including the biopsy cannot be done at the time of the exam, making a same time inﬂuenza vaccine is given (in a different second bowel prep necessary. If improvements and more controlled studies are necessary never previously vaccinated, older adults can be given a before it can be recommended for population-based primary series that includes doses at 0, 2, and 8 to 14 routine screening. Observational data have yielded conﬂicting results,45,46 and there are no randomized con- More than 55,000 deaths yearly with 140,000 new cases trolled trials (RCTs) on the efﬁcacy of ﬁber in primary per year place colorectal cancer as the second most prevention of colon cancer. In an RCT, neither a wheat common form of cancer, as well as the cancer with the bran-supplemented diet nor a low-fat, high-fruit and second highest mortality rate, in the United States. The -vegetable diet were found to affect the incidence of incidence of both invasive colorectal cancer and mortal- new colorectal adenomas (which can then progress to 172 H. These has been increasing interest in chemoprevention cancer or ongoing or previous long-term exposure to of colorectal cancer utilizing one or a combination of hormone replacement therapy, screening should be more substances. Primary care physi- NSAIDs, supplemental folate and calcium, or post- cians are encouraged help older patients overcome phy- menopausal hormone replacement therapy are efﬁcacious sical, economic, or other barriers to receiving screening. Other modalities used to screen for breast cancer include clinician breast exam and teaching breast self- examination. There is not sufﬁcient evidence at this time to recommend in favor of or against including these in Screening for Breast Cancer periodic screening exams. There are more than 176,000 Regarding primary prevention of breast cancer, ralox- new cases of breast cancer yearly, making it the most ifene and the antiestrogen tamoxifen have been recom- common cancer in women and the second leading cause mended for women at increased risk of developing breast 51 cancer, but not for the general risk population. Advanced age is an impor- tant risk factor both for developing breast cancer and for RCT in which 30% of the participants were over age 65, death from breast cancer. Use of in the rate of late-stage disease detection correlating well the drug in older women, however, was associated with a with an increase in the use of mammography. Again, Institute’s independent panel of experts, the PDQ, protective effects were mainly observed against the devel- opment of estrogen receptor-positive cancers. Most completed clinical trials have not included Physical activity may also reduce the risk of cancer. A women over age 70 and therefore the effectiveness of review of 13 mostly observational studies found lower screening mammography is not known in women 70 and incidence of breast cancer among physically active adults than in sedentary adults. Additionally, mortality is not the only endpoint of interest to women who may develop breast cancer; the effect of breast cancer diagnosis at a later stage on func- tion and quality of life is not known. There is some evi- Screening for Prostate Cancer dence from a retrospective cohort study that screening mammography is effective in women at least up to age (See Chapters 32 and 36) 79. Although prostate cancer is common in older dence yet that this decreases breast cancer mortality. The men and it can be aggressive and lethal, there are cur- American Geriatrics Society recommends annual or rently no reliable ways to distinguish small early cancers 16. Prevention 173 that will become aggressive from those that are slow Screening: Other Cancers growing and non–life-threatening even if left untreated. For these reasons, a number of organi- cancers of the lung, ovary, thyroid, kidneys, brain, skin, zations advise that an individual patient be educated pancreas, or hematologic system. Screening for High Blood Pressure Digital rectal exam by itself is not effective as a screen- ing test for prostate cancer. Treatment of hypertension in well as annual PSA screening test without deductibles or older persons has played a key role in leading to a sig- coinsurance payments or male beneﬁciaries aged 50 and niﬁcant reduction in morbidity and mortality from over. Screening for Cervical Cancer All forms of hypertension, including isolated systolic, (See Chapters 32 and 37) isolated diastolic, and mixed systolic/diastolic, should be screened for at least every 2 years and treated. There is some debate as to what age to discontinue measurements should provoke more immediate evalua- 80 Pap screening. Proper cuff size and technique are especially Preventive Service ﬁnds no solid evidence to impose an important in older individuals, and, as with younger upper age limit, but suggests testing be discontinued after adults, hypertension should only be diagnosed if present 81,82 age 65 for those who have up until that time had regular at more than one reading on three separate visits. The American College of Physicians guide- varies with the technique of the individual physician, lines neither recommend nor discourage cholesterol sample method used, and laboratory interpretation; sen- screening in patients 65 to 75 years of age and ﬁnd it sitivity ranges from 30% to 87% while speciﬁcities range unnecessary in patients older than 75 years with no evi- from 86% to 100%.
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