By V. Arokkh. Concordia University, Portland Oregon.
The same subset of propriospinal neurones (PN) project to extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and biceps (Bi) motoneurones (MNs) antabuse 500mg line. There is transiently increased efﬁcacy of descending (possibly reticulospinal) projections to PNs (see pp antabuse 500 mg online. The lesion (✚) has interrupted corticospinal projections to PNs and feedback inhibitory interneurones (IN) discount antabuse 500 mg. Each thin line represents one patient and the thick lines (and ●) the mean values 250mg antabuse otc. Studies in patients 483 one normal subject (b), but much more profound of the same magnitude as in normal subjects, when on the affected side than on the unaffected side of using a single shock (Fig. These dence against increased corticospinal activation of results are representative of those in the control and inhibitory interneurones (a possibility that would patientgroups;themeanvaluesofEMGsuppression be unlikely, given the corticospinal lesion). In fact, elicited by the train were not different for the right the corticospinal lesion is more likely to have caused and left sides of healthy controls and the unaffected decreasedcorticospinaldriveonfeedbackinhibitory side of the patients. The greater suppression observed on greater EMG suppression on the affected side of the affected side with the train could thus be the patients(Fig. Theasymmetryseenwith net result of two opposing effects: decreased cor- the train in stroke patients contrasts with the sym- ticospinal drive on inhibitory interneurones, and metry of the weak suppression elicited by single agreater component of the descending command volleys (0. MEP during ramp contractions Evidence for disfacilitation Support for a greater component of the descend- In three patients, it was possible to compare the ingcommandrelayedthroughthepropriospinalsys- modulationoftheon-goingEMG,theMEPandtheH tem is provided by the asymmetry found in stroke reﬂexatthetimeoftheirﬁrsttest,whentheasymme- patients between the musculo-cutaneous facilita- try of the EMG suppression was prominent. On the tion of the MEP evoked in the FCR by TMS at the unaffected side, the cutaneous volleys produced, as onset of a ramp task involving co-contraction of FCR in normal subjects, a suppression of the EMG and of and biceps: the facilitation was signiﬁcantly larger the MEP, with little change in the H reﬂex. There affected side, the on-going EMG and the MEP were is therefore evidence from another laboratory, using suppressed more than the H reﬂex. The asymmetry adifferenttechnique,forincreasedexcitationofpro- of the two former responses was signiﬁcantly greater priospinalneuronesduringvoluntarycontractionin than the asymmetry of the H reﬂex, and this argues stroke patients. Possible mechanisms underlying increased excitation of the propriospinal neurones during voluntary contraction Increased excitation of propriospinal neurones and recovery from hemiplegia Increased excitation could result from unmasking and/or reorganisation of projections from the ipsi- Evidence for a greater component of the lateral undamaged hemisphere. It has been sug- descending command relayed through the gested that the residual motor capacity in patients propriospinal system with poor recovery could involve such projections. Greater suppression of the on-going EMG by cuta- Data obtained with TMS of the ipsilateral undam- neous volleys in patients with poor recovery may agedhemisphereinpatientswithpoorrecoveryfrom result from more of the descending command pass- stroke are consistent with this view. Indeed, MEPs ing through the propriospinal relay or from an are more likely to be elicited by stimulation of the increase in the excitatory corticospinal drive to feed- undamaged hemisphere in the ipsilateral affected back inhibitory interneurones. However, the ﬁnding arm and have a lower threshold than in normal sub- that the cutaneous inhibition was symmetrical, and jects (Benecke, Meyer & Freund, 1991;Turton et al. A good candidate could be the connections ing command by propriospinal neurones could be from the ipsilateral premotor cortex to the reticu- merely a transient compensatory response follow- lar formation, which, in turn, gives rise to bilateral ingtheinterruptionofthecontralateralcorticospinal reticulospinal projections (Benecke, Meyer & Fre- pathway by the lesion. Lundberg, 1999) apply to humans, there sphere, with extension and relocation of the upper wouldbepotentreticulospinalprojectionsontopro- limb area (see Hallett, 2001). Conclusions There is evidence for more of the descending com- Synkinetic movements mand passing through the propriospinal relay in patientswithpoorrecoveryfromstroke. Theﬁndings The possibility that a greater part of the descending are consistent with transiently greater dependence command for movement is relayed through the pro- on descending (possibly reticulospinal) projections priospinal system in patients with poor recovery is onto propriospinal neurones, due to synaptic re- supported by the fact that such patients have invol- inforcement or unmasking and/or reorganisation of untary synkinetic movements. The greater reliance on the rones have divergent projections onto motoneu- propriospinalsystemforthemovementrepertoireof rones of muscles operating at different joints in the the upper limb would be accompanied by synkinetic cat (Alstermark et al. Greater cutaneous suppression Changes throughout motor recovery of the on-going EMG Asymmetry between the cutaneous suppression of Early in the illness, the cutaneous suppression pro- the on-going EMG on the affected and unaffected duced by brief trains of stimuli was signiﬁcantly sides was observed in patients with poor recovery of increased (with respect to normal subjects) on both wrist extension, but not in those with good recovery sides, despite marked asymmetry in the clinical fea- at the time of their ﬁrst test (Fig. This ﬁnding suggests the amount of EMG suppression and parkinsonian thatthetake-overofthetransmissionofthedescend- symptoms, before or after levodopa treatment. Conclusions 485 Increased excitation of propriospinal neurones Role of propriospinal transmission Theincreasedcutaneousafferentsuppressionofon- of a part of the descending command going EMG elicited by a train of three shocks was not The major role of the cervical propriospinal system paralleled by an increase in the suppression elicited is to allow integration of the descending motor com- by a single shock. Thus, here again, this suggests that mand en route to the motoneurones with afferent the increased cutaneous suppression was due not feedback from the moving limb at a premotoneu- to increased cortical drive on feedback inhibitory ronallevel. Thedescendingcommandformovement interneurones, but rather to increased excitation is focused on propriospinal neurones that receive of propriospinal neurones transmitting a compo- excitatory afferent feedback from the contract- nent of the descending command (cf. This ing muscle, and peripheral excitatory inputs may increased excitation of propriospinal neurones was therebyprovideasafetyfactorforpropriospinalneu- not directly related to the motor disability, since the rones which are already depolarised by on-going increased EMG suppression: (i) was not correlated descending activity. Muscle inhibitory projections with the severity of symptoms; (ii) was symmetrical may have two roles: (i) adjustment of the force of whereas the symptoms were clearly asymmetrical; the movement; and (ii) lateral inhibition, preventing (iii) returned to control level in the more severe activationofpropriospinalneuronesnotrequiredfor patients; and (iv) was not modiﬁed by levodopa the movement.
Warm-ups have the effect of getting the blood circulating discount antabuse 250mg overnight delivery, eliminating some of the kinks in the muscles buy generic antabuse 250mg line, increasing the body temperature purchase antabuse 500mg with visa, and loosening up the joints purchase antabuse 250mg without a prescription. The Basic Warm-Ups Eye Crunches Eye warm-ups are designed to alleviate the pressure of headaches and stress that are often carried in the eyes and eye sockets (orbits). Standing or sitting comfortably, close both eyes and squeeze them tightly for five seconds, then release. Repeat five times, making sure to breathe deeply and slowly through this and all of the other warm-ups. Roll both eyes to your right side, as if there is something there that you want to see, but keep your head facing forward. Finally, roll both eyes up as far as you comfortably can, hold for five seconds, then return to center. Then roll the eyes downward, as if trying to look at your feet, hold for five seconds, and return to center. Neck Bends Contrary to popular belief, neck rolls are not good for you—in fact, they present a danger. The practice of rolling the head around on your neck in a circular motion can lead to dizziness and, more importantly, damage to the upper vertebrae. We will warm-up our necks by performing neck bends, rather than neck rolls. With your body once again in a comfortable position, let your head tilt to the right side of your body, as if trying to touch your right shoulder with your ear. Hold this position, while continuing to breathe, for five seconds, and then return your head to the center position. Now we will let the head tilt forward gently, again letting the weight of the head pull it forward without straining. Finally, let the head tilt backward, as if looking at the ceiling, and hold for five seconds. Hold for five seconds, remembering to breathe as you do so, then release. Fingers Hold your left thumb with your fisted right hand, as if getting ready to pull your thumb outward. Pull gently, being especially careful if you have arthritis or carpal tunnel syndrome. Repeat this exercise for the right hand, using the fisted left hand to pull each finger gently for five seconds. TLFeBOOK W arm-U p E xercises / 63 Now, make a tight fist with your left hand, hold for five seconds, and then re- lease. Wrists Roll both wrists simultaneously, first in a clockwise direction, then in a counter- clockwise direction. Start with the fingers open, and perform 10 slow rolls in each direction. Then make fists of your two hands and repeat the exercise, performing 10 rolls in each direction. Now, hold your left hand parallel to the floor in front of you, with the fingers pointing across your body to the right, at chest level. Place the palm of your right hand across the back of the left-hand fingers, and keeping the left arm horizontal, attempt to bend the left wrist downward by pressing on the left fingers. Now place your right fingers beneath the left fingers, and press the left hand backward, as if trying to touch the back of your left forearm. Press only enough to get a good stretch—there should be no pain encountered when you perform this movement. Now repeat both of these exercises on the right hand, making sure to breathe deeply and keep your body aligned properly. Bring the arm across your body to the right at chest level, lifting the left elbow until it is parallel to the floor. Try to touch that fist to your left shoulder, and lift your left elbow upward toward the ceiling. Finally, with the left hand again held in a loose fist, drive the left elbow back- wards, as if trying to push a wall behind you with your elbow. Keep your left fist close to the left side of the body, near your lower ribs.
Treatment method: Abdominal massage consisted of the patient lying on their back with their abdomen exposed and then massaging the following points: Liang Men (St 21) Jian Li (CV 11) Zhong Wan (CV 12) Tian Shu (St 25) Qi Hai (CV 6) Guan Yuan (CV 4) Zhong Ji (CV 3) For patients with kidney qi insufficiency pattern antabuse 250mg overnight delivery, more time was spent massaging the main points Qi Hai order antabuse 500mg online, Guan Yuan generic 250mg antabuse with mastercard, and Zhong Ji order 250 mg antabuse mastercard. For patients with spleen-lung qi vacuity pattern, more time was spent massaging the main points Jian Li, Zhong Wan, and Qi Hai. Each point was massaged for 2-3 minutes mainly using supple- mentation method. With the child lying on their stomach and back exposed, the back was first rubbed to relax the muscles. Then the spinal column was stimulated using half circles on the midline, from top Chinese Research on the Treatment of Pediatric Enuresis 151 to bottom. The above method was used one time each day, and 10 times equaled one course of treatment. At the same time, practitioners made sure the following points were stimulat- ed bilaterally for 5-6 minutes each: Fei Shu (Bl 13) Pi Shu (Bl 21) Shen Shu (Bl 23) Ttreatment results were measured after 1-3 courses of treatment. Study outcomes: Fifty-four cases were cured, 32 cases improved, and three cases did not improve. From Clinical Observations on the Treatment of 78 Cases of Pediatric Enuresis with Massage by Wang Zhi-lin & Guan Zhi-lin, Guang Ming Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Guangming Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1995, #4, p. Sixteen cases were between the ages of 8-18, and 62 cases were less than eight years old. Seven cases had enuresis three or more times per night, 66 cases had enuresis 1-2 times per night, and five cases had enuresis every other night. Afterwards, the thumb was used to press down in the following points in the order provided for two minutes each: Zhong Wan, Qi Hai, Guan Yuan, and Zhong Ji. Next, the root of the palm was used to massage the area surrounding Guan Yuan for 1-2 min- utes. Before performing the massage techniques, the child was asked to urinate. The pressure was at a fixed depth and force and was neither too light or too heavy. During treatment, it was impor- tant to maintain pressure on the points without moving across the skin and then afterwards relaxing. Next, both thumbs were used to massage the following points bilaterally at the same time in the proper order for 1-2 minutes each: Zu San Li and San Yin Jiao. During this maneuver, the child may have experienced soreness, distention, or pain, all of which indicated the arrival of qi to the area. Next, Bai Hui was pressed and kneaded for two minutes, after which the child was asked to roll over. Using the root of the palm to knead or the lesser thenar eminence to apply the rolling method, the back region from the thorax to the waist along the bladder channel was massaged for three minutes. Then both thumbs were used to press and knead the following points bilaterally in order: Shen Shu, Pang Guang Shu, and Ba Liao. And finally, the thumb was used to apply the effleurage method to the lumber region in the area of Shen Shu and Ming Men as well as on the sacral region in the area of Ba Liao for one half minute each until there was a feeling of heat. If the patient had a weak, vacuous body and poor appetite, the thumb was used to press and knead the following points for 1-2 minutes: Fei Shu (Bl 13), Gan Shu (Bl 18), Pi Shu (Bl 20), and Wei Shu (Bl 21). Then the pinch method was used 6-9 times from the tailbone up to Da Zhui (GV 14). If there was accompanying Chinese Research on the Treatment of Pediatric Enuresis 153 abdominal pain and diarrhea, the method of kneading Tian Shu (St 25) was added. If the child had profuse dreams during sleep, then kneading Xin Shu (Bl 15) was added. Each day, the child was treated one time, and each time the manipulations lasted 20-30 minutes. From The Treatment of 116 Cases of Pediatric Enuresis with Spinal Pinch Pull Combined with Massage Applied to Acupuncture Points by Zhan Jin-ran, Ji Lin Zhong Yi Yao (Jilin Chinese Medicine & Medicinals), 1994, #1, p. The age of these patients was between 4-6 years old in 51 cases, 7-10 years old in 39 cases, and 11-14 years old in 26 cases.
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