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The return of Phineas Gage: Clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient cheap viagra professional 100mg free shipping. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior best viagra professional 50 mg, 46(6) purchase viagra professional 50mg without a prescription, 769– 780; Van den Eynde purchase viagra professional 100mg online, F. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces cue-induced food craving in bulimic disorders. Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments. When hurt will not heal: Exploring the capacity to relive social and physical pain. Explain how the electrical components of the nervous system and the chemical components of the endocrine system work together to influence behavior. Now that we have considered how individual neurons operate and the roles of the different brain areas, it is time to ask how the body manages to “put it all together. In this section we will see that the complexities of human behavior are accomplished through the joint actions of electrical and chemical processes in the nervous system and the endocrine system. Electrical Control of Behavior: The Nervous System The nervous system (see Figure 3. Everything that we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste is conveyed to us from our sensory organs as neural impulses, and each of the commands that the brain sends to the body, both consciously and unconsciously, travels through this system as well. A sensory (or afferent) neuron carries information from the sensory receptors, whereas a motor (or efferent) neuron transmits information to the muscles and glands. Interneurons allow the brain to combine the multiple sources of available information to create a coherent picture of the sensory information being conveyed. The spinal cord is the long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves and supporting cells that extends down from the brain. Within the spinal cord, ascending tracts of sensory neurons relay sensory information from the sense organs to the brain Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. When a quicker-than-usual response is required, the spinal cord can do its own processing, bypassing the brain altogether. A reflex is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. Reflexes are triggered when sensory information is powerful enough to reach a given threshold and the interneurons in the spinal cord act to send a message back through the motor neurons without relaying the information to the brain (see Figure 3. When you touch a hot stove and immediately pull your hand back, or when you fumble your cell phone and instinctively reach to catch it before it falls, reflexes in your spinal cord order the appropriate responses before your brain even knows what is happening. These quick responses, known as reflexes, can reduce the damage that we might experience as a result of, for instance, touching a hot stove. The somatic nervous system consists primarily of motor nerves responsible for sending brain signals for muscle contraction. The autonomic nervous system itself can be further subdivided into thesympathetic and parasympathetic systems (see Figure 3. The sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions normally function in opposition to each other, such that the sympathetic division acts a bit like the accelerator pedal on a car and the parasympathetic division acts like the brake. Our everyday activities are controlled by the interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. For example, when we get out of bed in the morning, we would experience a sharp drop in blood pressure if it were not for the action of the sympathetic system, which automatically increases blood flow through the body. Similarly, after we eat a big meal, the parasympathetic system automatically sends more blood to the stomach and intestines, allowing us to efficiently digest the food. And perhaps you’ve had the experience of not being at Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The two systems work together to maintain vital bodily functions, resulting in homeostasis, the natural balance in the body’s systems. The Body’s Chemicals Help Control Behavior: The Endocrine System The nervous system is designed to protect us from danger through its interpretation of and reactions to stimuli.

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