By Q. Brenton. California State University, Chico.

But the optimal array and succession of emotions lends itself aptly to be mapped by balance imagery cheap 120mg sildalis fast delivery. Others are kinesthetic best sildalis 120mg, as with balanced weights in two hands and equilibrium on a tightrope discount sildalis 120 mg otc. Certain metaphorical mixtures of "ingredients" like the emotional "ingredients" of temperament sildalis 120 mg with visa, the virtuous "ingredients" of character, and the balanced cyclical alternations of moods, energies, interests, appetites and passions do not lend themselves well to visual representation. Nevertheless, they are cognized in terms of other perceptual schemata like equilibrium or equable climate. Waking and sleeping, hunger and satiety, night and day, seasons and the lives of the generations are omnipresent in experience. Cycle schemata, understood in terms of these primary, basic experiences are found everywhere, especially in physiology, and are fundamental, as noted above, to some notions of health. Wants and needs underlying values are cyclical, meaning that at least some important current valuations fluctuate, somewhat predictably. Metaphors Metaphor is the projection of a conceptual structure from a source domain, relatively literally understood, onto a target domain which is then partly understood in terms familiar from the source domain. Basic categories and their central prototypes as well as image schemas for organizing our primary and central existential situation and affects are pyramided into higher level, more abstract concepts and metaphors. For example, the position image schemas Front/Back and Ahead/Behind were outlined earlier. Numerous metaphors facilitating our understanding in varied realms of experience such as time, attitude and success or failure map them onto the position schemas of Front/Back and Ahead/Behind. Each of these examples uses the literal and concrete cognitive structure of position to enable comprehension of something else. The word comprehension itself illustrates the historic pervasiveness of cognitive metaphor, cognizing understanding in terms of getting a grip. The informal reasoning used for construing and solving means/ends problems is based on several alternative metaphorical understandings of causation. The metaphorical comprehension of event structure, however, precedes the attribution and structuring of causation. Lakoff and Johnson include "events, causes, changes, states, actions and purposes" in the group of event structure concepts. The "state" is simply the status quo ante of whatever affairs are considered affected. An example is "Her memory" as in "Her memory worsened after the coronary artery bypass. What is selected to be referred to as the initial state depends entirely on what slice of the entire space-time COGNITIVE SEMANTIC STRUCTURES 23 continuum is to be highlighted, in a particular instance, as an "event. So an initial "state" is selected to be considered, certain changes for a certain duration are considered, and an outcome is identified as the final "state. Multiple possible states are amalgamated into two, and multiple, conceivably separable events are treated as one in this example. However, the metaphors are not arbitrary or radically relative to history and culture. They have latitude, but it is limited by their grounding in universal bodily experience. The Location Event-Structure metaphor maps the structure of a source domain, motion-in-space onto a target domain, the domain of events. This is a complex metaphor involving several sub-metaphors listed by Lakoff and Johnson as follows: The Location Event-Structure Metaphor States Are Locations (interiors of bounded regions in space) Changes Are Movements (into or out of bounded regions) Causes Are Forces Causation Is Forced Movement (from one location to another) Actions Are Self-Propelled Movements Purposes Are Destinations Means Are Paths (to destinations) Difficulties Are Impediments To Motion Freedom Of Action Is The Lack Of Impediments To Motion External Events Are Large, Moving Objects (that exert force) Long Term, Purposeful Activities Are Journeys19 Typical examples of how inferential structure is borrowed from the source domain and applied to the target domain are the following: States Are Locations; "She went into a coma. A time like the future, for example, can metaphorically "move" toward me or I can "move" toward it. Other duals involve containing or being contained, as when we describe ourselves as having a temper tantrum or being in a temper. Therefore, when an event is described in terms of movement from one location to another there is an implicit trajector moving from one container to another. The example given above could be restated, "Her memory went from good to bad after the coronary artery bypass. This trajector must be that which is common in the two states, namely, her memory with all its other features except good and bad. The fact is, that unless something about the implied trajector or the background remains unchanged, there is no event, because the disconnect between the putative prior and subsequent states is so complete that there is nothing to mark the two states as related.

When the stress s is plot- ted against the strain e sildalis 120 mg on line, the resulting curve takes the shape shown in Fig purchase sildalis 120 mg without prescription. Experiments indicate that a relaxed muscle fiber can be stretched with relative ease in the physiological range but that large increases in length require considerable tensile force exerted on the fiber and thus might lead to rupture of the fiber structure discount sildalis 120mg with amex. Next generic 120 mg sildalis overnight delivery, let us maximally activate the fiber (by either electrical or chemi- cal stimulation) and repeat the experiment. In this case, in the physio- logical range of muscle length, the fiber will typically shorten (rather than elongate) under the application of weight before reaching a steady-state length. The total fiber stress s that keeps the active fiber at a certain length is plotted against the strain e (Fig. One is that the longer the fiber in the physiological range, the higher is the steady-state force it can produce. Under conditions of con- stant length, muscle force generated is proportional to the extent of over- lap between the actin and myosin filaments. The degree of overlap decreases after sarcomere length approaches a certain value characteris- tic of the muscle. In the active state, a muscle can produce tensile stress of the order of 10 to 40 N/cm2. The stress in a skeletal muscle in the active state is much higher than in the passive state at the same length. Also, when an active muscle is stretched further, the force generated by it begins to drop, sig- naling failure. Another primary experiment on the contraction of muscle fibers con- cerns the rate of shortening of a contracting fiber against a resistance. When the load applied on it is re- duced, the fiber begins to shorten while still in tension. This is the so-called isotonic experiment often encountered in the muscle literature. A mea- sure of the rate of shortening is the dimensionless parameter V: V 5 (dL/dt)/L (6. The time de- rivative of fiber length L appearing in this equation is evaluated at 100 ms after the beginning of the shortening process. The parameter V is typically plotted against the ratio of the load carried by the fiber (F) to the load carried at isometric state at the same fiber length (Fo). In the human, the maximal muscle fiber shortening rate ranges from about 1 to 10 fiber lengths per second. The rate at which a mus- cle can shorten during contraction determines how quickly one can flex arms and legs; it plays an important role in virtually all athletic events, from short-distance running to sports that require throwing and hit- ting skills. Next, let us focus on parallel muscles where muscle fibers are parallel to the long axis of the fiber. Thus, the av- erage tensile stress acting on a cross section that is perpendicular to the axis of the muscle decreases from one end of the fiber toward the mid- section. The muscle is much stiffer overall at its ends because it is in this (a) (b) (c) W W σ1 σ 2 σ W FIGURE 6. The stress distribution on a cross section close to the ends of the mus- cle and at midsection are illustrated in (b) and (c), respectively. Internal Forces and the Human Body region that the fibers of the dense connective tissue of the muscle con- verge and become interwoven to each other to form tendon. Much of the force carried by the muscle is carried by this connective tissue in the end regions. In the belly region of the muscle, however, the cross-sectional area is large and the average tensile stress is small compared to the ten- sile stress carried by the adjacent tendons. Because the major muscles of the human body must produce forces comparable to the body weight, the cross-sectional area of a skeletal muscle in the belly region can be of the order of tens of centimeters squared. It is the belly part of the muscle that undergoes significant shortening during muscle contraction. The shape of the parallel muscle suggests that, in human body structure, the form (shape) may follow function.

He had been raised as an only child and had a good rela- tionship with his parents order sildalis 120 mg with visa. He and his father had embarked on many do-it- yourself projects and enjoyed working together on the weekends generic 120mg sildalis fast delivery. Ted had known about his birth mother from a young age but had made only passing attempts to locate her order sildalis 120 mg visa. His parents had always encouraged his search cheap sildalis 120 mg with mastercard, but since they had adopted him through an agency that sealed birth records, the search would be complicated, but not impossible. After Sarah’s arrival, Ted stayed home for two weeks to get acquainted with the baby and assist with childcare. Emily’s mom had been invited as well but was asked to time her arrival after Ted returned to work. This gave Ted and Emily uninterrupted time to bond with their child and the oppor- tunity to make some adjustments at home. Although Emily’s mom was careful about asking which tasks Emily wanted done and not interfering with Ted and Emily’s way of doing things, her presence in the home seemed particularly irritating to Ted. Prior to the baby’s arrival, he had a good rela- tionship with his mother-in-law so he was surprised by his own reaction. They were overwhelmed by all the work involved in caring for a new baby and seemed to always be behind on basic household chores. Ted would come home to dirty dishes and piles of laundry, and complained that with all the time Emily had at home, these simple tasks should be completed. Although originally looking forward to working from home, Emily was unhappy when the arrangement actually allowed her little time to com- plete her projects. Sarah’s constant interruptions and distractions left Emily feeling unproductive in her work and neglectful of the baby. She had decided to end the arrangement and return to her office, since she missed her colleagues and was not enjoying working from home as she had hoped. Couples with Young Children 57 Ted had begun spending more and more time at work, finding it stress- ful to come home to a cranky baby, a tired wife, and a disorganized house. When he was home, he willingly helped with the baby but only occa- sionally with basic household tasks. He spent his free time doing computer searches through agencies that assisted adoptees in locating their birth parents. Whenever she at- tempted to discuss her feelings with Ted, he became angry and defensive, blaming her for the untidy house, after which he withdrew into a stony si- lence. A new baby has disrupted their lives, and they are struggling to find a balance between their needs and Sarah’s. They have not yet established the routines that enable their household to function smoothly, and they miss the intimate moments of the past. Additionally, Emily is unhappy with her decision to work at home and feeling unproductive in her career and neg- lectful and incompetent as a mother. Ted expected Emily to simultaneously juggle household tasks, child care, and her career in her usual efficient manner, and is feeling a bit jealous of her time at home. While he recognizes that his early years were spent with loving, adoptive parents, his own ide- alization of family life with the birth mother he has never known contrasts sharply with the present reality. Both Emily and Ted are having difficulty accessing their complex feelings and are pushing each other away at the time they most desire closeness. Ted and Emily could benefit from emotionally focused therapy (EFT), a thorough discussion of which is found in Chapter 11 of this text. The brief summary that follows highlights in very general terms the interventions and goals of EFT. What makes Ted and Emily excellent candidates for EFT is the fact that they have a basically stable marriage and are experiencing a life cycle change. They are struggling to redefine their relationship, but the marriage is absent of any significant trauma. Her attempts to emotionally con- nect with Ted are met with defensiveness and emotional and physical with- drawal, which only reinforces Emily’s insecurities during a time when she is juggling three roles somewhat unsuccessfully. It is essential that both Ted and Emily feel validated and affirmed in their emotional experience as they struggle to redefine their relationship.

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